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  1. From 1627 to 1672, a civil war had made its name for a period in the history of our country: The Trinh - Nguyen conflict. The war between two equal forces had resulted in a never-ending conflict, dividing the nation into two respective feudal forces, with Lord Trinh governing Tonkin (Northern Dai Viet), while Lord Nguyen ruled over Cochinchina (Southern Dai Viet), each region separated by the Gianh river.
  2. At first, the two feudal forces Trinh anh Nguyen allied to eradicate the Mac Dynasty and restore the Later Le, swearing their loyalty. After the downfall of the Mac Dynasty, both monarchs, nomically speaking, were servants of the Later Le, meaning Tonkin and Cochinchina belonged to the Le. But in reality, they have scattered and formed their own forces as two different nations, resulting in Le Kings unable to interfere in this power struggle, thus leading to a civil war.
  3. The conflict came to a halt in 1672 in a draw. The people’s life in Tonkin was at peace. While in Cochinchina, the Nguyen sovereigns gradually expanded their territory by merging Champa, influencing Chenla through political and military methods. They would assist Chenla by supplying men to help Chenla to fend off Siam. As such, the monarchs would receive Chenle lands as a gift of gratitude, expanding Cochinchina’s border southward.
  4. After several years of peace, in the mid-18th century, the destitute farmers rose up in arms at both Tonkin and Cochinchina. Compared to Cochinchina, the rebellions in Tonkin were more aggressive. However, all of the rebellions in He district (Nguyen Huu Cau), Heo district (Nguyen Danh Phuong), Lia, Hoang Cong Chat… in both regions did not have the scale, power and conjugation required to overthrow the government then. Meanwhile the rulers of both regions such as Trinh Doanh from Tonkin and Nguyen Phuc Khoat from Cochinchina had the sufficient talent and merit to form a force to suppress the rebellions.
  5. During the last days of Lord Nguyen Phuc Khoat, he forsook all government affairs. His subordinates followed suit, and thus, corruption became a more serious issue. Le Quy Don of Tonkin had commented on the final generations of the Nguyen sovereign in Miscellaneous Chronicles of the Pacified Frontier: ..”all bureaucrats, big or small, carved houses, walls built with bricks, curtains, drapes, stuffs made with bronze, tables and chairs made from rosewood or sandalwood, porcelain teapots, saddles-bridles made with gold and silver, turned clothes, flowerbeds, they used riches off all sorts to show off…. They treated gold like sand, rice like mud, how extremely wasteful…”
  6. As the sovereignty declined, the hatred from the people grew. Soon, they began to rebel against the oppressing monarchy, signaling the end of the Nguyen sovereign’s regime.
  7. In the heat of the rebellion against the monarchy all across the nation, the Tay Son rebellion commenced in Quy Nhon in 1771. It is the most crucial event to have happened in Dai Viet history in the18th century.
  8. Tay Son is in Quy Nhon, Quang Nam, known for its lustrous lands, it was also where the Nguyen monarchs exploited the most. Out of 76000 units of cash collected yearly, Quang Nam took up to 40000 units.
  9. The mandarins in Quy Nhon outright took over the fields that the people had created. They privatized the fields, enslaved the people so they could exploit them fully. Other minorities such as the Chams were taxed with absurd taxes such as the forest good tax. They grew even more hostile towards the monarchy’s over-exploitation.
  10. According to the Nguyen monarchs’ conduct: “In 1725, the position of general cost 50 units, while it takes 45 units to be head of a town”. It was due to this that everyone fought to obtain the ranking. Especially during Nguyen Phuc Thuan’s rule, all of the power and authority was actually in the hands of Truong Phuc Loan. The lives of Cochinchina rules made the people suffer even more, resulting in more aggressive, violent and larger rebellions.
  11. It is the largest rebellion in scale, consisting of numerous social hierarchies, under the great leadership of the three brothers: Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Hue, Nguyen Hue. Nguyen Nhac used to sell betel nuts so he would usually cross the highlands, and establish a relationship with the people of Bana and cham. The opportunity led him to witness Cochinchina’s oppression, and sympathize with the people’s suffering, especially the minorities in the highlands, Nguyen Nhac and his brothers allied with those similar in motion to rise up against the ruling class.
  12. The Tay Son resistance received support from bureaucrats who opposed Truong Phuc Loan. Some of the rich such as Nguyen Thong, Huyen Khe, funded to assist the resistance. Nguyen Nhac quickly gathered a large force of farmers with the motto “take from the rich to return to the poor”.
  13. It could be seen that the civil war over the years had divided the nation, making the lives of the people more miserable, while the bureaucrats grew more corrupt, the injustice in their hearts were raised to the point of rebellion. This is one of the most drastic hierarchy wars in the feudal history of Vietnam.